Ahir (Ayar)
Patidars (Patel)
Targala - Bhavaya
 Jainism is belived to be as old as vedic religion. The lord Mahavir, the last Tirhankar or prophet of Jainism inspired the renaissance and brought it back to life. Jainism saw its dawn of the golden period as an effective alternative to Brahminism, which was then lost in innumerable rituals. The period was about 2500 years from now when Jainism and Buddhism spread a wave of awareness.
        The Jains kept the flames alive in the later stages when Hinduism was facing dangers from the Muslim agressors. Many intelligent, authoritative and enterprenuering gentlemen from this rich and prosperous community in the post –Mahavir period obtained state-honours, ministership, army-chief’s position or treasures of the state-money. The Jain monks went in the quest of knowledge. They read and studied number of old and ancient volumes, established reading homes and libraries, religious schools etc.
         The unique jain-libraries provide enough evidence of creative and studious approach of the scholars of those days who contributed through great many volumes on different subjects like history, politics, grammar, philosophy, astrology and the like. About 15 lacs of manuscripts are still available in various libraries.
         Probably on other small community has created so many architectural pieces of exquisite beauty and grandeur as the Jain community has done. Jain temples are found practically everywhere in India, the noted among them are: the Shravana Belgoda in Karnataka, the Udayagiri and the Khandigiri caves in Orissa, the Muktagiri and the Kandanpur caves in the Central India, the Samet Shikhar in Bihar, the Ranakpur shrines in Rajasthan and the Shetrunjay temples near Palitana and the Delwada temples in Gujarat. During the period many jain saints wrote a number of religious books. The books included not only those on religion but also on politics, astrology, history, grammar and philosophy. It may be noted here that more than 15 lakh manuscripts written by Jain saints and pundits on various subjects are still well preserved in the Jain religious and social establishments. King Kumarpal who occupied the throne of Gujarat then, dedicated his large kingdom to his great Guru Suri Shri Hemchandracharya. Since then there has been profound impact of jains over politics, social life, economics and commerce. Business and jains are synonymous. Frugalitry is their outstanding quality, however, perhaps jains donate more generously for religious causes than people of any other community. ‘dehrasara’ and jains saints are internal and inseperable parts of the jain community. Ritualism, penance or religious austerity and worship are interwoven with their daliy life.
               Every Jains religious ceremony or activity is evaluated in terms of money. The jains generally do not believe in making anonymous donations and perhaps that is the reason why extremely religious but poor jains are unable to avail themselves of the benefit of partaing in certain religious activities.
              The jains temples and religious places have a distinguished place in the spread and propagation of religion, art and culture. That is perhaps one of the biggest contributions of the jain community. The religious teaching, cultural awareness and promotion of art through traditional sculpture and architecture art the most common feature of jain community. They contribution of jain community to such field in the life of Gujarat through the years need volumes and volumes for elaboration. Gujarat owes its manifold propriety to Jain community to considerable extents.
             Jain do not believe in the incarnation of God although in Jainism there are various spiritual stages of ‘Tranthankar’,’Arihanta’,’Siddha’,’Upadhayaya’ and ‘Sadhu’  Jainism has two sects: (1) Shvetambar and (2) Dibambar. In gujarat the Dibambar are fewer than the Shvettambars. The Digambars are found in majority in the Northern parts of india. They also have sub-casters like ‘Shrimali’, ‘Oswal’, ‘Porwad or Porwal’, ‘Dasa’ and ‘Visa’.

           Thought untouchability has been banned in law, it is still practised in many castes and communities in india, but jain have nothing of the sort. This is indeed a great thing about the jains and jainism. The jains are a race and not a caste.
            The jains, by and large, are a peoperous race. Business or commerce is their first preference as economic activity. Even a working jain gentleman will have some miscellaneous or side business. Women too do not lag behind in this respect. Even women of economically well-off the jain families will keep themselves busy with sort of economic activity- minor though it may be. The jain are generally steadfast in following their religious rites and social customs and remains engrossed in observing the rituals and traditions.
            A jain, as an individual is calculative and practical in his life but the jains as a society or a race are benevolent and are always prepared to assist their community brethern. A large majority of jains are associated with the textile industry. The jains enjoy a dominant positions in the jewellery trade.
           The jains have gifted many great personalties to Gujarat.’ The names of Acharya Hemchandracharya and Harivijaysuriji are still known although they lived in middle ages. Late, Shrimad Rajchandra, Ananddhanji and Yoshovijayi acquired name and fame. The names of Punyavijayi and Santbalji in the recent past are too well-known to need elaboration. Vimalshah, the builder of famous Delwadas temples near Abu, Vastupal and Tejpal and Bhamasha, a great philanthropist of his time and a minister in the court of Rana Pratap were all jains. Shri Premchand Raychand donated million of rupees for public welfare and education.
          Gujarat ownes its economic properity in a large measure to Shri Shantidas Nagarsheth, Himabhai, premabhai, Lalbhai and Katurbhai all jain gentlemen from Ahemdabad. Besides strengthening the economy of Gujarat, they have very liberally donated large sums of money for the welfare of general public. There have been many great jain personalities also who have made meaningful contribution in keepingb to torch of ‘Entity of Gujarat’ aflame, the notable among them are Hutheesinh and Kesersinh Ambalal Sarabhai and his son Dr. Vikram Sarabhai.
          The establishment known as M/s. Anandji Kalyanji that looks after the upkeep of the jain temples is unique in its own way. In the field of literature there are a few glittering names like those of Pundit Sukhlaji, Parmanand Kapadia, Chimanlal Chakubhai, Mohanlal Mehta-‘Sopan’, ‘Chunilal Vardhman shah Zaverchand Meghani, Chunilal Madia, Jaibhikku and Vadilal Dagali. The Indian film industry will for ever remain indebted to Sardar Chandulal and great musciands Kalyanji and Anandji.